Condoms usually are tested in accordance with standard instructions, such as for example ISO 4074:2002 вЂњNatural latex plastic condoms needs and test practices,вЂќ  and ASTM D3492 08 вЂњStandard specification for plastic contraceptives (male condoms)вЂќ . Last year, the united states of america Food and Drug management (Food And Drug Administration) added ASTM D7661 10 test that isвЂњStandard for determining compatibility of individual lubricants with natural plastic latex condomsвЂќ to its list of respected criteria for usage in pre market product critiques [7,8]. It is really not clear, however, as to the extent formerly advertised products that are lubricant including those perhaps maybe maybe not marketed for intimate usage, satisfy any one of these requirements.
Probably the most cited laboratory evidence explaining condom breakage and oil based substances is really a 1989 paper posted in Contraception, where in actuality the authors conducted burst testing with various substances, and concluded that mineral oil based lubrications such as for instance child oil or human anatomy cream had an important degrading impact on latex . a reading that is careful but, reveals that Voeller et al. did not test petroleum jellies in this analysis, as it is often implied if this article is referenced. An abstract from the 5th International AIDS Conference claimed that similar mechanical testing found petroleum jelly to have a significant weakening effect on latex condoms  from the same year. A 1999 study reported similar screening with genital application items, and discovered that items containing veggie oil to damage latex condoms . A 2011 research stated that two commercial lubricants tested (one oil based plus one silicone based) and mineral oil had been discovered to diminish condom puncture energy, while all water based services and products tested had a significant strengthening impact. A search of this indexed literature that is medical restricted laboratory based proof to evaluate condom compatibility of petroleum ointment and silicone based lubricants.
Many research reports have analyzed condom slippage and breakage during genital sexual intercourse among research populations. Breakage prices of lower than 4% within the United States [12,13], 4% in Kenya and Mali and 13.3per cent in Ghana have now been documented .
Another research also discovered breakage prices of 12.9% in Barbados, 10.1% in St. Lucia and 6.7% in the usa become uncorrelated with breakage prices of exact same great deal condoms into the laboratory tests, and concluded the breakages had been much more likely as a result of incorrect usage or other factors . A research of males in Mexico, the Philippines while the Dominican Republic additionally determined that cause of breakage had been complex and in most cases connected with historic breakage among individuals .
A 1993 evaluation of males that have intercourse with males (MSM) into the Netherlands reported far lower condom failure prices among users of water based lubricants (1.7%), compared to those whom utilized oil based lubricants (10.3%) or saliva/no lubricant (5.7%) . Other leads to the literary works happen mixed. In 1999, a report of MSM in america also discovered lubricant used to have protective impact against condom breakage, however the forms of lubricant utilized by participants are not described .
A 1996 research additionally stated that users of water based lubricants reported somewhat reduced condom failure prices, yet during the time that is same no significant relationship between breakage and employ of oil based lubricants . Various other research reports have additionally did not show considerably reduced breakage prices because of oil based lubricants [20,21]. One research of feminine intercourse employees (FSW) in Europe reported a link between usage of oil based lubricants and HIV positivity, nevertheless the writers failed to connect this choosing to breakage  that is possible. More modern studies, nevertheless, have reported users of oil based lubricants were much more likely to have observed condom breakage, including among African American guys in the United States  and sex that is male in Mombasa, Kenya .